# 8-4 Water jugs

Suppose that you are given $n$ red and $n$ blue water jugs, all of different shapes and sizes. All red jugs hold different amounts of water, as do the blue ones. Moreover, for every red jug, there is a blue jug that holds the same amount of water, and vice versa.

Your task is to find a grouping of the jugs into pairs of red and blue jugs that hold the same amount of water. To do so, you may perform the following operation: pick a pair of jugs in which one is red and one is blue, fill the red jug with water, and then pour the water into the blue jug. This operation will tell you whether the red or the blue jug can hold more water, or that they have the same volume. Assume that such a comparison takes one time unit. Your goal is to find an algorithm that makes a minimum number of comparisons to determine the grouping. Remember that you may not directly compare two red jugs or two blue jugs.

a.Describe a deterministic algorithm that uses $\Theta(n^2)$ comparisons to group the jugs into pairs.

b.Prove a lower bound of $\Omega(n\lg n)$ for the number of comparisons that an algorithm solving this problem must make.

c.Give a randomized algorithm whose expected number of comparisons is $O(n\lg n)$, and prove that this bound is correct. What is the worst-case number of comparisons for your algorithm?

**a.** Select a red jug. Compare it to blue jugs until you find one which matches. Set that pair aside, and repeat for the next red jug. This will use at most $\sum_{i = 1}^{n - 1} i = n(n - 1) / 2 = \Theta(n^2)$ comparisons.

**b.** We can imagine first lining up the red jugs in some order. Then a solution to this problem becomes a permutation of the blue jugs such that the $i$th blue jug is the same size as the $i$th red jug. As in section 8.1, we can make a decision tree which represents comparisons made between blue jugs and red jugs. An internal node represents a comparison between a specific pair of red and blue jugs, and a leaf node represents a permutation of the blue jugs based on the results of the comparison. We are interested in when one jug is greater than, less than, or equal in size to another jug, so the tree should have $3$ children per node. Since there must be at least $n!$ leaf nodes, the decision tree must have height at least $\log_3 (n!)$. Since a solution corresponds to a simple path from root to leaf, an algorithm must make at least $\Theta(n\lg n)$ comparisons to reach any leaf.

**c.** We use an algorithm analogous to randomized quicksort. Select a blue jug at random. Partition the red jugs into those which are smaller than the blue jug, and those which are larger. At some point in the comparisons, you will find the red jug which is of equal size. Once the red jugs have been divided by size, use the red jug of equal size to partition the blue jugs into those which are smaller and those which are larger. If $k$ red jugs are smaller than the originally chosen jug, we need to solve the original problem on input of size $k − 1$ and size $n − k$, which we will do in the same manner. A subproblem of size $1$ is trivially solved because if there is only one red jug and one blue jug, they must be the same size. The analysis of expected number of comparisons is exactly the same as that of $\text{RANDOMIZED-QUICKSORT}$ given on pages 181-184. We are running the procedure twice so the expected number of comparisons is doubled, but this is absorbed by the big-$O$ notation. In the worst case, we pick the largest jug each time, which results in $\sum_{i = 2}^n i + i - 1 = n^2$ comparisons.